A tincture is a way to extract the vital constituents for healing from plant matter using an alcohol-based menstrum like 40-proof vodka, or brandy. Here I am decanting some stinging nettle (Urtica d.) tincture I started to "steep" last month, and then I show how to make a new tincture made from a combination of mullien (Verbascum t.) and wild bergamot (Mondara f.) - for respiratory issues, colds, and the flu.
Tinctures are generally taken orally with a few drops under the tongue. For underage persons and those who do not ingest alcohol tinctures can be water-down instead of taking straight. Or using non-alcoholic menstrum like water, or honey/sugar (syrups). Alcohol-based remedies can be kept for a long time without refrigeration however.
To make a tincture you basically stuff a jar or container that has a lid with an herbal plant matter either fresh or dried. Then fill with enough vodka, or brandy to cover the material in the jar. Let this sit for at least 2-weeks; 1 month or from "moon-to-moon" is best.
SIDE NOTE: Mullien and varying combinations of plants from the mint family such as bergamot can also be smoked for homeopathic treatment for repository issues - a bit counter-intuitive, but mullien is actually very pleasant smoked, and it will not get you high.
CAUTION: I am not a licensed or certified herbalist or healthcare professional. Please do your own research and consult with a licensed or certified herbalist or healthcare professional before using any home-made herbal remedies.