In this tutorial I will show how to make a smudge stick using White Sage (Salvia apiana). Smudging is an ancient, and thusly, a complicated subject. I have provided links below for reference and further study. This subject is beyond the purview of specific spiritual practices...I am only showing how to build a smudge stick in my method if you choose to do so.
"White Sage Smudge, also known as sacred sage, bee sage, or California sage, white sage for smudging is the most extensively used smudging stick. This herb stick is widely used for various purposes, including meditation, yoga, protection, and warding off evil spirits. When white sage smudge is burned, it emits a pleasant, herbaceous, and somewhat astringent perfume, which is why this herb stick is also associated with cleansing, purification of the body, and preventing illnesses." - https://review42.com/resources/types-of-sage-for-smudging
"Throughout its lengthy history, sage has been used for various purposes, from warding off evil spirits to enhancing female fertility. Said to have originated in the Mediterranean, sage was one of the most important plants in ancient times, and continues to bear relevance today-in particular, sage for smudging is said to aid your physical, mental, and emotional health. Sage for smudging is a mix of two or more herbs, and this bunch of herbs have specific properties good for balancing energy whenever you feel low vibrations.
"The modern-day practice of burning sage (or sage combined with other dried herbs) in personal smudging rituals and ceremonies is based on a combination of the spiritual, medicinal, herbal and cultural teachings of the past. Smudge Wand Essentially, a smudge ritual or a smudge ceremony is performed to correct the energy in a home, in an office, in an object, or even in a person. This is accomplished by burning sage or sage and a combination of herbs, in a focused, intentional way to cleanse out negative energy and to replenish positive, healing energy..." - https://www.sageandsmudge.com/
"What Is Smudging? Smudging is a way to energetically cleanse a space to invite positive energy. When smudging a space, you burn plant material (but there are alternatives if you can't tolerate the smoke). The smoke fills and purifies the environment. As the smoke rises, it takes your wishes and intentions and mingles them with the universe as a way to connect heaven, earth, and humanity. Burning aromatic herbs and resins was practiced in antiquity and is found in many cultures and spiritual religions. Smudging, though, is primarily associated with Indigenous traditions in the United States." - https://www.thespruce.com/how-to-smudge-your-house-1274692
"...Smudging is a cleansing ritual that involves the burning of sage. This can also be referred to as saging and promotes physical, emotional, and mental well-being by getting rid of bad energy. Sage itself is an herb that comes from the salvia plant family. This is fitting since salvere means to heal in Latin." - https://thoughtcatalog.com/january-nelson/2020/09/smudging/
"...to a number of studies that have shown that medicinal smokes1 such as sage have powerful antimicrobial and antibacterial qualities, can improve mood and cognition, can serve as an insect repellent, and can even help with sleep quality by easing insomnia.
In traditional Native American culture, burning sage is also thought to cleanse people of negativity and promote healing, wisdom, and longevity." - https://www.mindbodygreen.com/articles/smudging-101-burning-sage